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Immuunimodulatooriset vaikutukset

Oei SL, Thronicke A and Schad F. Mistletoe and Immunomodulation: Insights and Implications for Anticancer Therapies. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2019;2019:5893017

Huber R, Gründemann C. Die Wirkungen der Mistelsubstanz auf das Immunsystem und mögliche therapeutische Implikationen. Der Merkurstab. Zeitschrift für Anthroposophische Medizin 2018;71(4):265-268. DOI: https://doi.org/10.14271/DMS-20964-DE

Steinborn C, Klemd A M, Sanchez-Campillo A S, Rieger S, Scheffen M, Sauer B, Garcia-Kaufer M, Urech K, Follo M, Ucker A, Kienle G S, Huber R and Grundemann C. Viscum album neutralizes tumor-induced immunosuppression in a human in vitro cell model. PLoS One, 2017;12:e0181553. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0181553

Gamerith G, Amann A, Schenk B, Auer T, Lentzen H, Mügge DO, Cima KM, Löffler-Ragg J, Hilbe W, Zwierzina H. Aviscumine, a recombinant ribosomal inhibitor, increases the antitumor activity of natural killer cells. Oncology Letters 2017;14(5):5563-5568. DOI: 10.3892/ol.2017.686  

Saha C, Das M, Stephen-Victor E, Friboulet A, Bayry J and Kaveri S V. Differential Effects of Viscum album Preparations on the Maturation and Activation of Human Dendritic Cells and CD4(+) T Cell Responses. Molecules, 2016;21. DOI: 10.3390/molecules21070912 

Rieger S. Immunologische Effekte verschiedener Mistelextrakte in Wechselwirkung mit humanen Tumorzellüberständen – ein Modell mit Dendritischen Zellen. Dissertation, Universität Freiburg, 2015.

Kim J-J, Hwang Y-H, Kang K-Y et al. Enhanced dendritic cell maturation by the B-chain of Korean mistletoe lectin (KML-B), a novel TLR4 agonist. International Immunopharmacology 2014;21(2):309–319. 2014. 

Podlech OP, Harter PN, Mittelbronn M, Pöschel S and Naumann U. Fermented mistletoe extract as a multimodal antitumoral agent in gliomas. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2012;2012:501796. doi: 10.1155/2012/501796. Epub 2012 Oct 22. 

Huber R, Lüdtke H, Wieber J and Beckmann C. Safety and effects of two mistletoe preparations on production of Interleukin-6 and other immune parameters - a placebo controlled clinical trial in healthy subjects. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 11, no. 116, 2011. DOI: doi.org/10.1186/1472-6882-11-116

Hajto T, Fodor K, Perjesi P and Nemeth P. Difficulties and perspectives of immunomodulatory therapy with mistletoe lectins and standardized mistletoe extracts in evidence-based medicine. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med, 2011;2011:298972. DOI: 10.1093/ecam/nep191

Hegde P, Maddur MS, Friboulet A, Bayry J and Kaveri SV. Viscum album exerts anti-inflammatory effect by selectively inhibiting cytokine-induced expression of cyclooxygenase-2. PLoS ONE 2011;6(10), Article ID e26312. 2011.

Braedel-Ruoff S. Immunomodulatory effects of Viscum album extracts on natural killer cells: review of clinical trials. Forsch Komplementmed, 2010;17:63-73. DOI: 10.1159/000288702

Elluru SR, JP Duong van Huyen, S Delignat, MD Kazatchkine, A Friboulet, SV Kaveri and J Bayry: Induction of maturation and activation of human dendritic cells: a mechanism underlying the beneficial effect of Viscum album as complimentary therapy in cancer. BMC Cancer. 2008; 8: 161. 

Elluru S, JPD Huyen van, B Wootla, S Delignat, F Prost, VS Negi and SV Kaveri: Tumor regressive effects of Viscum album preparations – Exploration of immunomodulatory mechanisms. Medicina. 2007; 67: 85-89.

Schink M, Tröger W, Dabidian A, Goyert A, Scheuerecker H, Meyer J, Fischer I U and Glaser F. Mistletoe extract reduces the surgical suppression of natural killer cell activity in cancer patients. a randomized phase III trial. Forsch Komplementmed, 2007;14:9-17. DOI: 10.1159/000098135

Elluru S, JP Duong Van Huyen, S Delignat, F Prost, J Bayry, MD Kazatchkine and SV Kaveri: Molecular mechanisms underlying the immunomodulatory effects of mistletoe (Viscum album L.) extracts Iscador. Arzneimittelforschung. 2006; 56: 461-466.

Schink M, Tröger W, Goyert A, Scheuerecker H, Selbmann H K and Glaser F. [Correlation of NK cell activity against autologous tumour cells and K562 cells with the clinical outcome during therapy with mistletoe extracts]. Forsch Komplementmed, 2006;13:147-155. DOI: 10.1159/000092624

Huber R, Classen K, Werner M and Klein R. In vitro immunoreactivity towards lectin-rich or viscotoxin-rich mistletoe (Viscum album L.) extracts Iscador applied to healthy individuals. Arzneimittelforschung, 2006;56:447-456. DOI: 10.1055/s-0031-1296811

Heinzerling L, von Baehr V, Liebenthal C, von Baehr R and Volk H D. Immunologic effector mechanisms of a standardized mistletoe extract on the function of human monocytes and lymphocytes in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo. J Clin Immunol, 2006;26:347-359. DOI: 10.1007/s10875-006-9023-5

Huber R, Rostock M, Goedl R, Ludtke R, Urech K, Buck S and Klein R. Mistletoe treatment induces GM-CSF- and IL-5 production by PBMC and increases blood granulocyte- and eosinophil counts: a placebo controlled randomized study in healthy subjects. Eur J Med Res, 2005;10:411-418

Klein R, Franz M, Wacker R, Classen K, Scheer R, von Laue HB, Stoeva S and Voelter W. Demonstration of antibodies to the chitin-binding mistletoe lectin (cbML) in tumor patients before and during therapy with an aqueous mistletoe extract. Eur J Med Res 2004;9:316-322.

Büssing A, M Bischof, W Hatzmann, F Bartsch, D Soto-Vera, EM Fronk, M Gmeindl and GM Stein: Prevention of surgery-induced suppression of granulocyte function by intravenous application of a fermented extract from Viscum album L. in breast cancer patients. Anticancer Res. 2005; 25: 4753-4757. 

Klein R, Classen K, Berg PA, Lüdtke R, Werner M  and Huber R. In vivo-induction of antibodies to mistletoe lectin-1 and viscotoxin by exposure to aqueous mistletoe extracts: a randomised double-blinded placebo controlled phase I study in healthy individuals. European Journal of Medical Research, 2002;7(4):155–163, 2002

Enesel MB, Acalovschi I, Grosu V et al. Perioperative application of the Viscum album extract Isorel in digestive tract cancer patients. Anticancer Research 2005;25(6):4583–4590. 

Wong C K, Zhang J, Ip W K and Lam C W. Intracellular signal transduction in eosinophils and its clinical significance. Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol, 2002;24:165-186. DOI: 10.1081/IPH-120003748

Tabiasco J, Pont F, Fournie J J and Vercellone A. Mistletoe viscotoxins increase natural killer cell-mediated cytotoxicity. Eur J Biochem, 2002;269:2591-2600. DOI: 10.1046/j.1432-1033.2002.02932.x

Schink M and M Borowsky (2001). Zytotoxische Effekte von Mistellektinen und einem Mistelpräparat auf menschliche natürliche Killerzellen in vitro.  163-176. In: Scheer R., Bauer R., Becker H., Berg P. A., Fintelmann V. (Hrsg.): Die Mistel in der Tumortherapie, Grundlagenforschung und Klinik: 163-176. KVC Verlag Essen 2001, ISBN 3-933351-22-7

Siegle I, Fritz P, McClellan M, Gutzeit S and Murdter TE. Combined cytotoxic action of Viscum album agglutinin-1 and anticancer agents against human A549 lung cancer cells. Anticancer Res 2001;21:2687-2691

Stein GM, U Edlund, G Schaller, U Pflüller, A Büssing and M Schietzel (2001). Polysaccharide und Viscotoxine – Immunologische Wirkungen und Interaktionen. In: Scheer R., Bauer R., Becker H., Berg P. A., Fintelmann V. (Hrsg.): Die Mistel in der Tumortherapie, Grundlagenforschung und Klinik:.145-161. KVC Verlag Essen 2001, ISBN 3-933351-22-7.

Yoon TJ, Yoo YC, Kang TB, Kim I, Kim J-B, Park, Y-H, Yoo Y-C and Yee S-T. Cellular and humoral adjuvant activity of lectins isolated from Korean mistletoe (Viscum album colaratum). International Immunopharmacology 2001; 1(5):881–889. 2001.

Elsasser-Beile U, Voss M, Schuhle R and Wetterauer U. Biological effects of natural and recombinant mistletoe lectin and an aqueous mistletoe extract on human monocytes and lymphocytes in vitro. J Clin Lab Anal, 2000;14:255-259. DOI: 10.1002/1098-2825(20001212)14:6<255::aid-jcla1>3.0.co;2-j

Antony S, 226. Antony S, Kuttan R and Kuttan G. Role of natural killer cells in iscador mediated inhibition of metastasis by adoptive immunotherapy. Immunol Invest, 2000;29:219-231

Büssing A, Rosenberger A, Stumpf C  and Schietzel M. Development of lymphocyte subsets in tumor patients after subcutaneous administration of mistletoe extracts. Forsch Komplementarmed 1999;6(4):196–204. 


Kuttan R and Kuttan G. Inhibition of lung metastasis by adoptive immunotherapy using Iscador. Immunol Invest, 1999;28:1-8

Büssing A and M Schietzel: Apoptosis-inducing properties of Viscum album L. extracts from different host trees, correlate with their content of toxic mistletoe lectins. Anticancer Res. 1999; 19: 23-28. 

Büssing A, W Vervecken, M Wagner, B Wagner, U Pfüller and M Schietzel: Expression of mitochondrial Apo2.7 molecules and caspase-3 activation in human lymphocytes treated with the ribosome-inhibiting mistletoe lectins and the cell membrane permeabilizing viscotoxins. Cytometry. 1999; 37: 133-139

Antony S, Kuttan R and Kuttan G. Effect of viscum album in the inhibition of lung metastasis in mice induced by B16F10 melanoma cells. J Exp Clin Cancer Res, 1997;16:159-162

Stein GM and Berg PA. Mistletoe extract-induced effects on immunocompetent cells: in vitro studies. Anticancer Drugs 1997;8 Suppl 1:39-42

Stein GM, Stettin A, Schultze J and Berg PA. Induction of anti-mistletoe lectin antibodies in relation to different mistletoe-extracts. Anticancer Drugs 1997;8 Suppl 1:57-59

Büssing A, K Suzart, J Bergmann, U Pfüller, M Schietzel and K Schweizer: Induction of apoptosis in human lymphocytes treated with Viscum album L. is mediated by the mistletoe lectins. Cancer Lett. 1996; 99: 59-72. 

Büssing, A. Induction of apoptosis by the mistletoe lectins: A review on the mechanisms of cytotoxicity mediated by Viscum album L. Apoptosis (1996) 1: 25. 


Büssing A, Regnery A and Schweizer K. Effects of Viscum album L. on cyclophosphamide-treated peripheral blood mononuclear cells in vitro: sister chromatid exchanges and activation/proliferation marker expression. Cancer Lett, 1995;94:199-205. DOI: 10.1016/0304-3835(95)03850-v

Büssing A, Azhari T, Ostendorp H, Lehnert A and Schweizer K. Viscum album L. extracts reduce sister chromatid exchanges in cultured peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Eur J Cancer, 1994;30A:1836-1841. DOI: 10.1016/0959-8049(94)00299-k

Kovacs E, Hajto T and Hostanska K. Improvement of DNA repair in lymphocytes of breast cancer patients treated with Viscum album extract (Iscador). Eur J Cancer, 1991;27:1672-1676


Beuth J, Ko HL, Gabius H, Burrichter H, Oette K and Pulverer G. Behavior of lymphocyte subsets and expression of activation markers in response to immunotherapy with galactoside-specific lectin from mistletoe in breast cancer patients. The Clinical Investigator 1992;70(8):658–661.

Hajtó T, Hostanska K, Frei K, Rordorf C and Gabius HJ. Increased secretion of tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin 1, and interleukin 6 by human mononuclear cells exposed to β-galactoside-specific lectin from clinically applied mistletoe extract. Cancer Research 1990;50(11):3322-3326. 


Ribereau-Gayon G, Jung ML, Baudino S, Salle G and Beck JP. Effects of mistletoe (Viscum album L.) extracts on cultured tumor cells. Experientia 1986;42:594-599

Hajto T. Immunomodulatory effects of iscador: a Viscum album preparation. Oncology 1986; 43(1):51–65. DOI:10.1159/000226420.

Sivut päivitetty 30-08-2020

© Suomen Antroposofisen lääketieteen lääkäriyhdistys (SALLY) ry

© Mistelikuvat/Mistletoe-Images: Jürg Buess  – Institut Hiscia, Arlesheim (CH)